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Thursday, 23 March 2017


With the recent 'attack' of the 17th November on the German Embassy (and the subsequent 'murder' of a British defence attaché - translators note) with rockets various leftist commentators considered it their obligation to pre-judge public opinion condemning the true terrorists: the State, imperialism which blows up Embassies as a whole and murders innocents in Yugoslavia.

Their reaction is just and honest if we consider it to apply to events. If in other words the position of the Establishment suffices,that the 'mystery organisation' is truly a left-wing organisation subscribing to methods of individual terrorism.

The other view is also well known which is sometimes aired publically that terrorist organisation are only fronts for secret services, local and foreign, in their provocatory roles.
If this second case is real it becomes evident that every left fighter is obliged to confront the issue in a totally different manner: To condemn the state conspiracy, instead of supporting with pointless articles state lies, which a cover up of a campaign of provocation's continues for two and a half decades now and whose aims are clear beyond doubt.

The belief of the official version, which occurs by some, has surpassed the boundaries of ignorance and it should maybe become an issue for social psychology.

They tell us that if we blame terrorism on the security services we fall on to police explanations of social phenomena, something unattributed to marxist thought.

Truly the activity of secret services and provocations cannot exist in the sphere of sociology. It's very good for the State to attribute attacks to it to writers of police fantasies. On the contrary we would add that true terrorism as an example of revolutionary opportunism belongs in the realm of fantasy, as a phenomenon it is totally unexplainable from whichever serious sociological analysis.

Historically terrorism appears when the masses feel endless hatred. In an era when the peoples are suffering under absolutist regimes, military dictatorships or they have kneeled after great upheavals. For example it is understandable from sociological laws the action of Alexandros Panagoulis to place bombs on the road of the dictator Papadopoulos. But it is totally ridiculous to believe that young 'panagoulides' may appear just as the dictatorship is collapsing and hundreds of thousands of people are on the streets daily demanding their rights inside a climate of hope and newfound enthusiasm. But in these conditions the unexplainable and weird first act of terrorism that we witnessed. The chief of the CIA Wells was killed (his body was never shown) and the torturers of the junta Malios and Babalis...
The phenomenon of terrorism is in opposition not only with the known framework of social conditions but with every type of logic. How can it be possible for a quarter of a century, for civil servants and known citizens be murdered in broad daylight during rush hour and the perpetrators always remain free. Nothing analogous exists for the whole of world history. There is no reason to deal with the arrest of the 'known-unknowns' (Greek phrase meaning security agents) which occur every now and again by the hopeless attempts (which always fail) to manufacture conspiracies, to manufacture terrorists. Up until today all these actions never supported the official line but made it have holes in it.

A terrorist organisation like 17th November with such ardour and constant activity, responsible for acts, which are penalised with the highest sentences, could not recruit young new members, which it must educate as professional killers. If we assume that the organisation remained uncatchable because it remained in its original nucleus, which obviously had good military training would have been retired two and a half decades later! But according to live witnesses the 'terrorists' are always young, able to climb motorbikes and they disappear.

Anyway a typically terrorist group would aim for targets that would provoke confusion in the state mechanism. Politicians whose disappearance would unsettle the fragile balance of forces, state organs that were morally responsible for crimes and attacks against peoples.

Instead of that we see people being killed who are totally irrelevant (e.g. Momferatos) and actions to occur which the state needs the time it needs them. That is the reason why the terrorist attacks have ended up being totally predictable.

People who can play hide and seek under the noses of the Greek security forces, of the FBI and the CIA can not be coincidental and let us not add that for 25 years now their terrorism only damages the popular struggle and only the State gains from it as it appears to be in legal defence, providing it with the necessary excuses so as to advance and strengthen itself continuously its own terrorism.

The official view of terrorism cannot be acceptable without stepping on all the laws of logic. In contrast provocation is a totally justified and explainable practice of the ruling classes in today's conditions. Capitalism achieves a greater centralisation of forces of the political means of deceit and provocation, during the rise of its class strategy, the moment it is threatened the most. The great social disturbances, which the insoluble economic crisis provokes, the dreadful consequences of the wars it itself unavoidably provokes make the class instinct of self-preservation immensely delicate. We must not forget that it is a class that has dominated the world scene for half a millennium. It has accumulated a massive political experience, which is in the blood and bones of the ruling circles. It mobilises all its forces to remain at all costs in power. It mobilises all its forces so as to remain at all costs in power. It acts with such craftiness in such an unbridled manner, the clearer it becomes to its leaders the dangers threatening them.

In eras of great social convulsions provocation becomes one of its most brilliant weapons. It serves the need for a fantastic threat, which allows capitalism to bring together and mobilise all its forces at the opportune moment. To prepare for the true threat. It needs lightning bolts of fake revolutions so as to legalise and launch its own counterrevolution.

Up until a few years ago the communist threat served it well. In Greece they spoke about a northern threat. The EAM-Bulgarians who remained armed to enter our northern borders. Once this 'danger' collapsed the ruling class needed a new invisible threat. As one didn't exist one needed to be invented. The international general staffs uncovered terrorism. In the name of wiping it out the bourgeois state became armed to the teeth. It made anti-terrorist laws. It created Special Forces. It justified the arrival of 'special US teams'. It filled the streets with fully armed Rambos. It set up
roadblocks. It created an undeclared state of emergency, which in other eras no junta could have even dreamed of!

With terrorism, state and citizens for the first time appear to have a common enemy. For the crushing of the common enemy they must use 'blind violence' placing in danger the lives of innocent civilians, all state and citizens, must unite! State repression if it isn't supported becomes acceptable as the lesser evil. Anyone who goes against this automatically becomes a collaborator and supporter of terrorism.
This isn't a Greek phenomenon or a Greek invention. As we all realise imperialism has a need for 'terrorism' as a measure of international relations. Whole countries enter the black list. They are labelled terrorist states, as if they support terrorism or put up with it. With this excuse they are threatened, bombed or condemned to the genocide of the embargo. It is a clearly orchestrated campaign directed from Washington. An international campaign of lies, deceit and violence.

It is true that the imperialist wouldn't have been able to carry it out with success if the collapse of the USSR hadn't predated it. The opposite pole in the realms of propaganda has gone. Without the USSR the 'left' and 'democratic' parties in the western world have given up. Hand in hand with the mass media they are surrendering to the fantastic scenarios of terrorism. They support the lies of the state security agencies. All their gargled and irresponsible conspiracies.

In Greece, no party, not even the KKE ever dared to condemn the secret services and the State as the true organiser of terrorism.

The scenarios, which the state creates, are so provisional, so badly manufactured and they would have collapsed years ago if the extreme left had exposed them. But in this belong the eternally stupid, whom the State uses so it can become believable. In this one finds people who with enthusiasm fall in the trap of terrorism. From 'revolutionary' duty!

Accepting the official myths, they believe they are gaining a section of the 'glory' of the 'terrorists'. As stalinism condemned every revolutionary act as a provocation, the extreme left feels they become legal if they portray every provocation as a revolutionary act. Stalinism survived many decades unearthing everywhere 'counterrevolutionaries'. But they forget that the bourgeois State specialises in finding everywhere 'revolutionaries'. They aren't bothered by the fact that the stalinists for the first time are seeing real terrorists, their where they previously say only 'police spies'.

In conclusion the working class and its most advanced sections confront with deep skepticism the official myths. The issue is to undertake a conscious and courageous campaign to uncover the terrorist conspiracies. So the conspirators remain naked and nothing to stand on. To uncover their aims and their criminal methods. This becomes even more urgent, as the threat of new strangleholds appear on the horizon against the Greek people and to see new dirty games which are being manufactured on both sides of the Atlantic under the excuse of fighting a war on terrorism
MARCH 1999

Wednesday, 22 February 2017

Book Review: Mass Replacement Migration

Book Review: Special thanks....from VN Gelis

Vast movements of people have to be organised. The British Empire organised massive population movements, through the slave trade, forced emigration to Australia, and the forced movement of indentured labour from India to Africa.

The vast movements into Greece of people coerced by poverty and misery are privatised, outsourced, to Chinese mafia gangs and Albanian smugglers. The Chinese mafia demands 10,000 euros for every immigrant they bring into Greece from China, Thailand and Pakistan.

A Greek minister, and major employer, said, “Immigrants are God’s blessing, we need them because they work with one third of a Greek worker’s wages, because they cannot go on strike, they cannot form unions, they can do nothing.” The ‘no borders’ anarchists ally with the employing class, denouncing all who disagree with them as racists, driving people into the arms of Golden Dawn. As ever, the ultra-left and the far right are locked in each other’s arms.

Schengen is supposed to defend the EU’s borders from illegal immigrants, but Greece does not prosecute or deport them, instead it legalises them, breaking its own laws. This raises the suspicion that there is some secret EU-Greek government deal to allow this breach of Schengen.

A former MP of the New Democracy party said, “the issue was raised of supporting Albania by showing tolerance in the issue of hundreds of thousands of illegal immigrants, because the neighbouring country had made a definitive turn to the west and should be supported in this course.”

As Marx wrote in 1866 of employers’ recruitment of workers from Europe to defeat a strike in Britain, “The purpose of this importation is the same as that of the importation of Indian coolies to Jamaica, namely, perpetuation of slavery.

William Podmore

Monday, 13 February 2017

The Twilight Saga of the IMF's American Circus in Greece…

Currency Manipulation in the era of Decline
Politics has never had so many clowns on stage, Schauble, Tsipras, Merkel. Not long ago Greece allegedly leaked secret IMF reports when everyone knows the IMF programme for Greece not only went against its own rules but was only supported by the US and the EU. In other words from day one there has been a joint effort to have dual currency control between the US and the Euro. The Wall St crash of 2007/8 led to a massive collapse of the Dollar and a big appreciation of the Euro almost 50% more than when it first appeared.

Russian exports in oil and gas during the first decade of 2000 to the EU led to a massive increases in income for Russia and stabilised it at the same time as the Arab world was being destabilised due to the fake war on terror and US interventions. The collapse of US foreign policy in the Arab world by the end of the 2000 decade meant that if allowed naturally the Euro would have appreciated near enough to 100% of the falling dollar.

Beyond all proportion to its actual economic size and beyond all political expectations Greece became the vehicle through which US currency manipulation would become dominant in appreciating the dollar during in particular the 2012 and 2016 elections. If one traces the rise and flow of the dollar in relation to other currencies one notices that a year or so before America enters an electoral cycle the dollar and stock markets appreciate.

As the EU is an American invention and its leading politicians are vetted and placed in their position by the shadow global governments of the Trilateral Commission and the Bilderberg groups which essentially represent finance capital, the constant and persistent bailouts and talk of GREXIT created the appropriate global climate for investors to restore faith and return to the …dollar.

Despite the fact that the EU and the USA on paper owe around $40 trillion, Greece’s debt of $300 billion which is just chump change in relation to the previous amounts, it has now come to light via the musings of the alleged future US Ambassador to the EU a Ted Malloch that the Germans are now involved in currency manipulation by keeping a deflated Euro. The same is also said of the Chinese. Americas money printing ie QE to the tune of $5trillion since 2008 does not of course factor. As the old adage goes it’s a case of ‘Do as I say not as I do’.

The problem America now faces is how to reflate the Euro to make it less competitive in relation to exports and this of course cannot be done as the IMF-ECB roadshow has only followed one main policy, no subsidies, tax everyone to death and impose economic genocide from one country to the next (Euro periphery). It cannot be done so for the first time Merkel announced the possibility of accepting a ‘two tier Euro’ as if we had a one tier Euro so far (with Cyprus bail ins and Greek capital controls) different interest rates for different countries in an alleged ‘single currency’. So it might be broken up between a Northern euro and a Southern one. Or with the removal of Greece from the Euro hoping the remaining Eurocurrency reflates. The logical thing would be to remove Germany, but logic to the architects of the single currency with 5 different monetary policies was always in short supply.

It is obviously beyond absurd to see Greek politicians (PASOK, ND, Syriza) on tv and on the radio talking about a return to the Drachma as their bosses have told them to prepare public opinion when in reality they don’t know where to turn as their whole political career and promotion has been made on supporting and promoting the Euro. It’s like seeing a hangman become a Buddhist.

The fact of the matter is they created a mess with so much shit that even with the best sewage company on earth they won’t be able to clean this one up. They don’t know what will happen to the stock markets if the Euro is openly breached, they don’t know what will happen if we return to the Drachma. One thing is for sure, history is going in that direction. Grexit is inevitable and with it will come departure from the EU and the departure of all those migrants who arrived in Greece since the fall of the Soviet Union, for a currency only worth for local consumption will no longer serve a purpose in a post globalised era to globalised citizens.

VN Gelis
13th February 2017

Saturday, 4 February 2017

Interview on Moscow Radio

Fellow NATO members Greece and Turkey appear to be on the brink of clashing over disputed islands in the eastern Aegean Sea, but the reason for the present tension isn't limited to a few rocks.

00:00 / 00:00
Reports have streamed in over the past week that a Turkish naval vessel was menacingly circling around disputed islets in what many interpreted as blatant intimidation and warmongering. The historical dispute between Athens and Ankara over these territories predates the establishment of Turkey as a country and occasionally flares up to the forefront of regional politics. This time around, however, there’s a lot more bubbling below the surface than initially meets the eye.

Kos Island
'Violation of Int'l Law': Turkey Warns Greece Over Military Drills on Kos Island
In the days preceding the provocation, Greece declared that it would not extradite eight rogue Turkish servicemen who fled in the aftermath of the failed coup attempt against Erdogan; critics argue that remanding the fugitives would be tantamount to complicity in their execution. On the other hand, Turkey warned that this action would have serious consequences for bilateral relations, and in hindsight, it’s plausible that the latest naval tensions between the two neighbors over the Aegean islands is among the responses that Ankara had in mind all along.
An additional bone of contention between the longstanding regional rivals is the immigrant deal signed between Ankara and Brussels last year, which some experts believe could be endangered by the present bilateral dispute between Turkey and Greece. The weather is about to warm up in the coming months and create favorable conditions for large-scale illegal migration to Europe. Knowing this, Turkey might hold out the deal that it reached with the EU as a bargaining chip in pressuring Brussels to force Athens to make concessions. There’s also the larger trend of Turkey becoming more independently assertive in general under President Erdogan, be it through the unprecedented consolidation of executive power, its decisive pivot towards Russia and Iran following the coup, or its recent game of hardball with the West.

Given this visible trajectory, the recent Greek-Turkish naval tensions begin to look like part of a bigger power play representing ambitions much grander than the desire to command a few tiny islands off the Anatolian coast.

To discuss this issue in more detail, we are happy to be joined by Serap Balaman, Turkish political commentator and Evans Agelissopoulos, Greek political commentator.

Tuesday, 31 January 2017

When Greek solidarity over Cyprus Independence broke the post war defeat of the Greek Left Part Two

When Greek solidarity over Cyprus Independence broke the post war defeat of the Left on the streets of Athens Part Two

Whites and Mau Mau

Banner reads ‘Disgraceful Americans’ Revenge for the Defeat of the Civil War? | Τ. ΤΡΙΚΚΑΣ, ΕΔΑ 1951-1967 (Αθήνα 2009)

The post war Left was hounded severely being in prisons and on islands with prisons and the irony of the situation is that it ended up on the street with the forces of the ‘nationalist’ far right over Cyprus, not unlike our era today.
In the name of the struggle against British imperialism, traditional ideologies ( of the alleged ‘superiority’ of the Greek nation) was legalized as an example of ‘deflected’ anti-imperialismm.

We read in a banner that the Cypriots aren’t ‘Mau Mau’ (27.10.1955) openly condemning the anticolonial guerrilla movement of Kenya, militant yes but not up to the standards of the white race and its thousand odd year history.

Even more complicated was the relativisation of the dividing line between resistance and being a quisling something which divided people in a blood line previously.

It’s ironic that the Left (EDA United Democratic Left) supported electorally in Arkadia a quisling politician of the 3rd Reich against the supporters of the national sellout Karamanlis – Cyprus being the key here.

Irony of the situation is that those people who under the 3rd Reich had publically declared their support of the legality of the occupier thought their position was justified “It was considered a heresy then that if you though that it wasn’t necessary for us to burn our hut for the sake of England’ wrote Pavlos Palaiologos the day after they deposed Makarios (Vima 11.3.1956).

“But we burnt it. Then liberation came. Everyone was happy. But we had the December events and then the gangsterous war (referring to civil war) a product of all the resistance which England inspired and England funded”….

The issue of our times is that in order to keep Turkey in NATO whilst at the same time supporting moves towards an a controlled Independent Kurdistan (ie break up of Turkey) the NWO wants to offer up the Aegean sea bed as a quid pro quo to Turkey and the only way of doing that is legitimising the Turkish occupation of Cyprus. If the the first three decades of the NWO inaugurated by Bush senior in 1990 could not do it, it seems pretty impossible to occur under a Trump administration as all the indications are this administration is in a geostrategic retreat and May recent attemps at currying favour with Erdogan will fall on deaf ears.

Note of the translator VN Gelis

Throughout the 1950’s Britain’s world Empire was under question having faced a geostrategic defeat during WW2 when ti was forced to hand over its world role to the ascending US Empire. As such India’s Independence started decolonisation in Asia and the same processes occurred in Africa with Ghanas independence leading onto Kenya’s and Northern Rhodesia’s (current Zambia). It was inevitable for the same process to occur in Cyprus from military men who had been England’s and Germany’s quislings during WW2.

The man who led EOKA (Cyprus liberation struggle movement) Grivas (note below) played a role during the December events in Athens killing partisans on behalf of Churchill as his anti-communism took precedent over everything else.

Britain’s insistence on maintaining Cyprus was due to the military bases there which can oversee the Arab world and as such they would try to maintain them tooth as nail as they did. Cypriot Turks on the islands did not participate in the liberation movement it was Greek affair under the slogan of ‘Enosis’ (union) with Greece. Once the English realised they couldn’t militarily defeat EOKA without flooding the island with tens of thousands of troops (when decommissioning was all the rage from Empire in the period of time) they resorted to their well known ‘divide and rule’ tactics by supporting the small Cypriot Turkish community and they created via the London and Zurich treaties equal status for this community bringing in Turkey to the game, proving always there are no allies in war amongst nations (Turkey did not participate in the Allied war against Hitler) creating a ‘constitutional monstrosity’ with respect to the Cypriot Constitution in the words of the General Secretary of the United Nations Galo Plaza…

By 1958 the Greek Left became the official opposition gaining 25% of the votes with EDA (union of Democratic Left) and by 1960 building workers through violent confrontations could bring down governments. The civil war and the defeat of the Left was a but a memory. The struggle for Cypriot independence contributed to that....

On Grivas
During the 3rd Reichs Occupation of Greece, there was a General called Grivas who was part of the 3rd Reichs Occupation forces having served in the Greek Army in both the invasion of Ataturks Turkey and the defence of Greece after the Axis invasion led by Italy he set up a paramilitary organisation called X (Hites) who spent their time crushing communist led partisans. He was from Cyprus and led the Cypriot armed independence struggle against the British Empire for Enosis between Cyprus and Greece. In that conflict he ended up in conflict with the collapsing British Empire. Its ironic how Velouhiotis and Makarios died at the hands of the British whilst Grivas lived all the way to 1974.

Thursday, 19 January 2017

Revolutionary Moves against the Leadership of the Cypriot Army by veterans and lower rank officers and soldiers

Revolutionary Moves against the Leadership of the Cypriot Army by veterans and lower rank officers and soldiers

Resist the Cypriot and military leadership was announced by a page on 12th January on Facebook with the name ‘Revolutionary Forces of the National Guard’. ‘Respect the Cypriot People Disrespect the Ananstasiades regime’

“Those in the forces of every type and hue active, retired and inactive are placing their forces at the disposal of the Cypriot peoples, who sees their gains being dissolved by the Cypriot Democracy via political machinations occurring in Geneva, Switzerland.
We are a military movement of national guard with the vanguard being veteran army personnel and at the same time we are opposed to the dictatorial government which happens to be in Geneva and we seek the restoration of a democratic regime.

Και συνεχίζει: «Για αυτό καλούμε από την μία, σε πρώτη φάση την ραχοκοκαλιά της Ε.Φ (Εθνική Φρουρά) η οποία την εφεδρεία και από την άλλη τους απλούς πολίτες για παλλαϊκή άμυνα μέσω κινητοποιήσεων σε διάφορες τοποθεσίες. Αυτό δεν σημαίνει ότι δεν θα χρειαστούμε στο πλευρό μας ως επιπλέον δύναμη τους κληρωτούς και επαγγελματίες οπλίτες, πάντα μαζί με τους εθνοφύλακες μας».
That is why we are calling in a first phase the National Guard and on the other citizens for a pan national defence via mobilisations in various locations. That does not imply we wont need on our side as a second force the paid and professional army alongside our army veterans.’
We should all gather to protest outside the offices of the General Army Command in Lefkosia.

Translators Note
The above was posted on Facebook and sections translated by VN Gelis

Monday, 16 January 2017

Greek Solidarity over Cyprus Independence broke the post-war Defeat of the Greek Left Part One

How the Athenian Street recovered the defeats of the 1940's...
Abridged, annotated and translated from the Greek author Tasos Kostopoulos

9th May 1956. Stadiou St central Athens

‘The Govt had decided to crush every anarchist manifestation which under the guise of patriotism leads directly to anti-national aims’
Konstantinos Karamanlis (PM) 9/5/1956

9th May 1956 was a demonstration that led to the official death of three people but at least another two (who were classified as victims of car accidents after persuasion by the government of the day).
After the defeat of the Left in the Greek Civil War and the domination of the post-war quisling state on the back of the Marshall Plan and the US cold war we had the first big demos in Athens in the mid 1950’s over Cyprus independence which then was still ruled by Britain. This period of quiet after the tumultuous war, occupation and civil war of the 1940’s decade was broken mid 1950’s by the issues around Cyprus independence and the eclipse of the British Empire. This was the period of the Suez Crisis, the Mau Mau rebellion in Kenya and defeats of AngloFrench imperialism so developments in Greece and Cyprus were part of the bigger anti-colonial trend.

Ending of the Lefts Political Isolation

First picture has slogans London has betrayed our GreekEnglish friendship second one Harding (British Foreign Minister) Cypriots aint the Mau Mau)

Who led the solidarity movements?

The demos for Cyprus started in Athens in November 1951 two years after the defeat of the civil war and three years before the start of the armed struggle of EOKA (Cypriot liberation movement)
Greek royalists were at the forefront ‘Pan Student Committee of Cypriot Struggle’ (PEKA) ‘National Committee of Cypriot Unity’ (PEEK)

The First Committee was founded by a student from the school of Philosophy who was part of the rightist collaborator quislings of the German 3rd Reich.
The Second Committee was set up by the Archbishop of Athens Spiridon) and had representatives from the Greek version of the CBI, royalist leadership of the Greek TUC, University vice chancellors, etc.
If the official leadership of the Cypriot movement was from those who won the civil war the shock troops of the demonstrations originated from the social base of the defeated Left.

Cyprus offered a break from the isolation and the defeat of the Left, a way of demonstrating against the regime of special measures and a return to public life not as a victim but as a fighting progressive movement with demands.

The fact that the enemies of the nation were suddenly its previous saviours (Churchills England and after the USA) not only allowed it to march and demonstrate undisturbed its anti-British and anti-American feelings and at the same time offered another undoubted patriotic legalisation, as the ex-USSR was the only force with its allies who supported the national issue of Cyprus in the UN.

This in an era where every objective mentions to the resistance of EAM was severely banned, Nazi collaborators were staffing all the leading posts of the infrastructure of the state, the armed forces and the police.
“People found the excuse to break out from the ghetto of political bans” remembers George Xatzopoulos a member of the illegal EPON until 1958. “Now even a simple teachers that was frightened by the security state labelling him an undesirable now had the Archibishop as an excuse. Internal politics changed fundamentally even Tsaldaris (ex-PM) collaborated with EDA (Left) in the elections of 1956”.

During one of the first demos of solidarity with Cyprus led by the United Democratic Youth of Greece like the student of Law and secretary of the student organisation Lena Makri describes the events of the day.
“We had our banners hidden under our long coats. We stood on the left hand side of the demonstration. There were 500 of us who were excited with our slogans. During the speech of the Archbishop police surrounded us, Xites (paramiliatary police from the German occupation). They started threatening us then attacking us kicking us. We were surrounded, whoever could escape did” (D. Kousidou-Stavropoulos ‘Left Youth Greece 1950-53’ Athens 1993 p530)

Two years later the events had changed to such an extent that ‘Avgi’ (paper of EDA now Syriza) had called in its front page for a massive demo on 20.9.1954 and EDA taking part in an organised fashion via student unions or with labour centres.
Confronted with this situation and with the difficulty of managing a movement that put in doubt the patriotic components of the rulers state propaganda from early on branded the movement as being run by communists.

10/5/1956 |
Newspaper articles from the era described the conflicts between demonstrators and police as being infiltrated by armed communists and the victims of these conflicts were attributed to them, “its also not impossible for them to be agents of a foreign Power or Communists who have as an interest to turn the demo bloody”!

A Youthfull Rebellion

The youth rebelled not having internalised the defeat of the 1940’s
They who were motivators for the demos weren’t the old Left.
“they who took part and gave the emphasis were the young people” Xatzopoulos remembered “a generation that knew the consequences of defeat but itself not the product of a defeat”
An old tradeunionist Evangelos Sakkatos gave us a similar picture “The world which went on the demos and in the conflicts was mainly the youth. Not only the student youth but the working youth”

The demos were large and they attacked the firemans water cannons and the firemen themselves. The police in its announcements alleged it kept calm and didn’t shoot everyone dead and that it even let some people off after it had arrested them (‘Eleftheria’ paper 20.1.1952)

The 1950’s was the era when the prisons were full of the Left partisans of the 1940’s and the Law enacted 509 could still send you there if you were deemed a danger to the state so it is true that despite many youth being sent to courts they were let off. The state didn’t want to radicalise another generation via prisons.

The turn happened during the demonstration 9th May 1956 when the President Karamanlis stated that he would crush every ‘anarchic manifestation’. From that moment onwards all demos in solidarity were to be banned. By 1958 nearly two years after 1956 no demos over Cyprus had occurred.

The demos occurred roughly in a similar fashion throughout the 1950’s. The demonstrators would be confronted by the police, they would try to march towards the British Embassy and they would break the law on banned demos. The police would use clubs, sticks and firemens vehicles to disperse the crowds. Tear gas wasn’t used but was used in the big demo of the building workers in 1960.

The demonstrators on their behalf used the poles from their banners and materials from the many building sites after the post-war reconstruction of Athens against the police.

Despite the extensive use of Molotov cocktails during the December events of 1944 in Athens they are absent in the demos of solidarity for Cyprus. The police also alleged that the youth used potatoes filled with shaving blades to throw at the police but the only report was in ‘Ethniko Kirix’ 14/3/56 which reported that they were found and used as an excuse to ban the demo of 12/3/56

Demos for Cyprus Top picture 4/3/53, Below: 14/12/1954 |
14/12/1954 | ΑΣΚΙ

Anti-British Demos

As the British Embassy was sealed off and difficult to get to due to the police restrictions the demonstrators took out their venom in all official buildings that had something to do with foreign powers or had foreign names as such the Army Fund building (where foreign military detachments would arrive), the US library in Stadiou Street, the offices of British Airways and other British companies, the hotels ‘Akropol Pallas’ (had British military delegations staying there) and the Great Britain hotel in Sindagma sq even shops just with British sounding names or English letters in them

9/5/1956 | ΑΣΚΙ

The patisserie Picadilly will be renamed provisionally ‘Cyprus-Bar’ and the Victoria one into Lefkosia and the Great Britain hotel will hide its name with Greek flags.

Stadiou Street had been labelled ‘Churchill Street’ after the 1944 December events and all the signs linked to this street were ripped up on 20.1.1952 whilst they were fully destroyed on 20.8.1954
Above all else one of the targets of the demonstrators were the private tram and trolley companies which belonged to the British company ‘Power and Traction’ – the monopoly control of the electrification of the country (which was the work of the dictator Pangalos and the ‘democrat’ till then Minister of Transport Ioannis Metaxas) confirmed the semi-colonial nature of Greece by foreign capital.

All vehicles of the Power company were attacked every time there was a demonstration over Cyprus. The government removed them during the demos after 1954 and in particular when the Archbishop Makarios of Cyprus who led the campaign for ‘Enosis’-Union with Greece was exiled by Britain.